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Methods in Optometry

Code 12512
Year 2
Semester S2
ECTS Credits 6
Workload PL(30H)/TP(30H)
Scientific area Optometria
Entry requirements There are no entry requirements
Mode of delivery Face-to-face.
Work placements Not applicable.
Learning outcomes Ojectives:
- Integrate the knowledge of anatomy, physiology and neuroscience in the study of binocularity.
- Understand the operating principles of instruments and methods for binocular vision examination.
- Integrate different methods of optometric examination to study the refractive and binocular status.

At the end of this course the student should be able to:
- Understand the operating principles of the equipment, know how to perform and interpret keratometric measures;
- Determine the refractive value in near vision;
- Knowing the various options for optical refractive compensation in distance vision and near vision;
- Understanding the characteristics of binocular vision;
- Know how to perform the techniques for the study of binocularity;
- To determine the influence of the binocular examination results in refraction;
- Know the characteristics of anisometropy and aniseikonia.
Syllabus Theoretical-practical classes:
1. Keratometry and Javal´s rule;
2. Irregular astigmatism;
3. Accommodative Analysis: Delay and accommodative response, negative and positive relative accommodation (NRA and PRA), monocular and binocular accommodative flexibility (MAF and BAF) and methods of near vision evaluation and refractive adding prescription;
4. Introduction to binocular vision;
5. Methods of dissociation of binocular vision: Phoria, vergence and duction;
6. Accommodation-convergence relationship: AC/A and CA/C ratios;
7. Anisometropia and Aniseikonia: Definition, classification, epidemiology and etiology, signs and symptoms, clinical examination and prescription.

Laboratory classes:
1. Keratometry;
2. MEM, Nott, Bell and stationary cross-cylinders;
4. MEO, Worth 4 lights and estereopsis;
5. Cover test and Von Graefe phoria;
6. Von Graefe vergence and duction;
7. Induced phoria;
8. AC/A and CA/C ratios;
9. Methodology integration.
Main Bibliography - Scheiman MM, Wick B (2008). Clinical management of binocular vision: heterophoric, accommodative and eye movement disorders. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
- Elliott D., Clinical Procedures in Primary Eye Care, Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, 3rd edition, 2007 – Pag.131-132; 194-195
- Benjamin W.J., Borish´s Clinical Refraction, Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, 2nd edition, 2006 – Pag. 145-191
- Furlan W., Monreal J.G., Escrivá L.M., Fundamentos de optometria – Refracción Ocular, Universitat de València, 2ª edición, 2009 – Pag. 102-104
Teaching Methodologies and Assessment Criteria In accordance with the provisions of Order No. 2018 / R / 60:
- The teaching activity is of the theoretical-practical and practical and laboratory type (Article 110)
- The attendance at TP and PL classes is not compulsory (Article 114)
- The system for assessing knowledge is continuous (Article 115)
- To obtain the "frequency" parameter in the Teaching-Learning (EA) classification, the student must carry out a written test and obtain a minimum grade of 6 out of 20 (article 116)
Language Portuguese. Tutorial support is available in English.
Last updated on: 2016-06-09

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