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  4. Methods in Optometry

Methods in Optometry

Code 12512
Year 2
Semester S2
ECTS Credits 6
Workload PL(30H)/TP(30H)
Scientific area Optometria
Entry requirements There are no entry requirements
Mode of delivery Face-to-face.
Work placements Not applicable.
Learning outcomes Ojectives:
- Integrate the knowledge of anatomy, physiology and neuroscience in the study of binocularity.
- Understand the operating principles of instruments and methods for binocular vision examination.
- Integrate different methods of optometric examination to study the refractive and binocular status.

At the end of this course the student should be able to:
- Understand the operating principles of the equipment, know how to perform and interpret keratometric measures;
- Determine the refractive value in near vision;
- Knowing the various options for optical refractive compensation in distance vision and near vision;
- Understanding the characteristics of binocular vision;
- Know how to perform the techniques for the study of binocularity;
- To determine the influence of the binocular examination results in refraction;
- Know the characteristics of anisometropy and aniseikonia.
Syllabus Theoretical-practical classes:
1. Keratometry and Javal´s rule;
2. Irregular astigmatism;
3. Accommodative Analysis: Delay and accommodative response, negative and positive relative accommodation (NRA and PRA), monocular and binocular accommodative flexibility (MAF and BAF) and methods of near vision evaluation and refractive adding prescription;
4. Introduction to binocular vision;
5. Methods of dissociation of binocular vision: Phoria, vergence and duction;
6. Accommodation-convergence relationship: AC/A and CA/C ratios;
7. Anisometropia and Aniseikonia: Definition, classification, epidemiology and etiology, signs and symptoms, clinical examination and prescription.

Laboratory classes:
1. Keratometry;
2. MEM, Nott, Bell and stationary cross-cylinders;
3. NRA/PRA and MAF/BAF;
4. MEO, Worth 4 lights and estereopsis;
5. Cover test and Von Graefe phoria;
6. Von Graefe vergence and duction;
7. Induced phoria;
8. AC/A and CA/C ratios;
9. Methodology integration.
Main Bibliography - Scheiman MM, Wick B (2008). Clinical management of binocular vision: heterophoric, accommodative and eye movement disorders. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
- Elliott D., Clinical Procedures in Primary Eye Care, Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, 3rd edition, 2007 – Pag.131-132; 194-195
- Benjamin W.J., Borish´s Clinical Refraction, Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, 2nd edition, 2006 – Pag. 145-191
- Furlan W., Monreal J.G., Escrivá L.M., Fundamentos de optometria – Refracción Ocular, Universitat de València, 2ª edición, 2009 – Pag. 102-104
Planned learning activities and teaching methods TP classes include the exposure and demonstration of each theoretical topic and solving theoretical and practical exercises or case studies. The PL classes include presentation and developing skills on operating and measuring on optometric equipment. The cognitive skills are developed through participatory exhibition and solving theoretical and practical exercise and the practices and communication skills through supervised work group.
Metodologias de Ensino e Critérios de Avaliação Em conformidade com o disposto no Despacho nº2018/R/60:
- A actividade lectiva é do tipo teórico-prático e prático e laboratorial (artigo 110º)
- A frequência às aulas TP e PL não é obrigatória (artigo 114º)
- O regime de avaliação de conhecimentos é contínua (artigo 115º)
- Para obter o parâmetro de "frequência" na classificação Ensino-Aprendizagem (EA) o aluno deve realizar uma prova escrita e obter a classificação mínima de 6 valores (artigo 116º)
Language Portuguese. Tutorial support is available in English.
Last updated on: 2016-06-09

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