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Introduction to Vision Sciences

Code 12493
Year 1
Semester S1
ECTS Credits 6
Workload PL(15H)/TP(45H)
Scientific area Optometria
Entry requirements -
Mode of delivery Face-to-face.
Work placements Not applicable.
Learning outcomes The general objectives of the curricular unit (UC) are:
Framing within a historical perspective the importance of the study of optics, optometry and vision sciences in the past, present and future. Identify the role of the bachelor in Optometry-Vision Sciences in the professional context. To know the national, European and worldwide framework of Optometry. To know the possible contexts of application of Vision Sciences and to promote the application of methodologies of bibliographic research.
At the end of the course the student should be able to:

(1) Refer important milestones in the history of Optics, Optometry and Vision Sciences.
(2) Identify the areas of practice of professionals in Optometry-Vision Sciences.
(3) Distinguish different forms of communication and scientific dissemination.
(4) To collect, analyze, integrate and synthesize scientific information using databases of relevant scientific articles in the field of Optometry and Vision Sciences.
Syllabus (1) History of optics, optometry and vision sciences and their instrumentation;
(2) Current and future perspectives and challenges of optometry and vision science;
(3) National and international schools, associations and accreditations;
(4) Research bibliography: introduction to databases;
(5) Methodology and aspects of scientific work.
(6) Forms of scientific communication and dissemination: basic and applied research; types and constitution of scientific documents.
Main Bibliography - Benjamin WJ (2006). Borish´s Clinical Refraction, Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, 2nd edition.
- Ceia, C. (2003). Normas para apresentação de trabalhos científicos. 4ª edição, Editorial Presença. Lisboa.
- Frada, J.J.C. (2001). Guia prático para a elaboração e apresentação de trabalhos científicos. 11ª edição, Edições Cosmos. Lisboa.
- Heard SB (2022). The Scientist’s Guide to Writing: How to Write More Easily and Effectively throughout Your Scientific Career, 2nd edition, Princeton University Press

- Databases of scientific articles:
ISI web of Science (,
Pubmed (,
IEEE Xplore (
Teaching Methodologies and Assessment Criteria Classes are organized combining two complementary teaching techniques: (i) exposition and discussion classes (supported by slides and other support material available through the e-content platform). Seminars presenting research themes and topics related to Optometry and Vision Sciences. (ii) Practical laboratory classes aimed at familiarizing with the equipment used to practice Optometry. The assessment includes a theoretical part in the form of a written test, and the preparation of a scientific work with oral presentation; the laboratory component is assessed by a practical test.
Language Portuguese. Tutorial support is available in English.
Last updated on: 2023-10-19

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