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Methods in Optometry

Code 12512
Year 2
Semester S2
ECTS Credits 6
Workload PL(30H)/TP(30H)
Scientific area Optometria
Entry requirements There are no entry requirements
Mode of delivery Face-to-face.
Work placements Not applicable.
Learning outcomes Objectives:
- Integrate the knowledge of anatomy, physiology and neuroscience in the study of binocularity.
- Understand the operating principles of instruments and methods for binocular vision examination.
- Integrate different methods of optometric examination to study the refractive and binocular status.

At the end of this course the student should be able to:
- Understand the operating principles of the equipments;
- Knowing the various options for optical refractive compensation in distance vision and near vision;
- Understanding the characteristics of binocular vision;
- Know how to perform the techniques for the study of binocularity;
- To determine the influence of the binocular examination results in refraction;
- Know the characteristics of anisometropy and aniseikonia.
Syllabus Theoretical-practical classes:
1. observation and recognition of clinical signs using objective techniques;
2. Accommodative Analysis: Delay and accommodative response, negative and positive relative accommodation (NRA and PRA), monocular and binocular accommodative flexibility (MAF and BAF) and methods of near vision evaluation and refractive adding prescription;
3. Introduction to binocular vision;
4. Methods of dissociation of binocular vision: Phoria, vergence and duction;
5. Accommodation-convergence relationship: AC/A ratio;
6. Anisometropia and Aniseikonia: Definition, classification, epidemiology and etiology, signs and symptoms, clinical examination and prescription.

Laboratory classes:
1. Bruckner, Hirchberg, Krimsky, Cover-test;
2. MEM, Nott, Bell and stationary cross-cylinders;
4. MEO, Worth 4 lights and estereopsis, and associate phoria;
5. Von Graefe phoria;
6. Von Graefe vergence and duction;
7. Induced phoria;
8. AC/A;
9. Methodology integration
Main Bibliography - Scheiman MM, Wick B (2008). Clinical management of binocular vision: heterophoric, accommodative and eye movement disorders. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
- Elliott D., Clinical Procedures in Primary Eye Care, Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, 3rd edition, 2007 – Pag.131-132; 194-195
- Benjamin W.J., Borish´s Clinical Refraction, Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, 2nd edition, 2006 – Pag. 145-191
- Furlan W., Monreal J.G., Escrivá L.M., Fundamentos de optometria – Refracción Ocular, Universitat de València, 2ª edición, 2009 – Pag. 102-104
Teaching Methodologies and Assessment Criteria Practice Class (PL): The Practice Class sheet (s) (see Moodle), corresponding to the PL class scheduled for each week, must be completed before the office practice begins. If the student has not prepared the lesson at home, he will have to prepare it in the classroom before starting the scheduled office practice. There will be a 15 min period at the beginning of the class to answer questions.

Preparation: Material not essential to the practice must be kept outside the cabinet. Wash hands before entering the cabinet and handling any equipment. At the end, clean and tidy the equipment and report on damaged equipment. Do not leave garbage on the countertops.

Cabinet practice: Two students per cabinet. Each student is responsible for recording their results on their practical class sheet. All the forms made during the semester are part of the daily notebook so they must accompany the student in all PL.
Language Portuguese. Tutorial support is available in English.
Last updated on: 2023-06-17

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