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  4. Enzymology


Code 12825
Year 3
Semester S1
ECTS Credits 6
Workload PL(15H)/T(30H)/TP(15H)
Scientific area Biochemistry
Entry requirements Have the basics of: • Organic chemistry: - Knowledge of the main functional groups of the organic molecules and their reactivity. - Knowledge of the most frequent reactions in Organic Chemistry (nucleophilic substitution and addition, elimination, electrophilic substitution, etc.). - Notions of stereochemistry. • General Chemistry and Physical-Chemistry: - Notions of molecular structure and chemical bonding. - Knowledge of common chemical reactions (acid / base, oxidation-reduction, precipitation, hydrolysis, etc.). - Notions of chemical equilibrium and chemical thermodynamics. - Notions of chemical kinetics (rate of reactions, elementary reactions, order and molecularity of a chemical reaction). • Mathematics: - Basic concepts of Statistics. - Notions of Mathematical Analysis (differential and integral equations, integration of differential equations of separable variables). •Biochemistry: - Knowledge of the main groups of biomolecules and their general properties.
Mode of delivery face-to-face
Work placements Not applicable
Learning outcomes It is intended that the student knows the basics of Enzymology. He should:
- Acquire notions of structure and general properties of enzymes.
- Understand general mechanisms of enzymatic action.
- Understand and apply concepts of enzyme kinetics.
- Know practical applications of enzymes.
At the end of the course the student should be able to:
- Classify and assign the systematic name to a particular enzyme.
- Relate the structure of enzymes with their catalytic function.
- Explain the physical and chemical processes by which enzymes produce catalysis.
- Propose a kinetic mechanism to explain the enzymatic action and deduce the rate equation of the enzymatic reaction in a situation of steady state.
- Identify different types of enzyme inhibitors and activators.
- Determine the initial rate of an enzymatic reaction.
- Perform experimentally the kinetic study of an enzyme in the absence or in presence of different inhibitors.
Syllabus Theoretical classes:
1. Historic perspective.
2. General properties and nomenclature of enzymes.
3. Enzyme structure.
4. Thermodynamic aspects of mechanisms of enzymatic catalysis.
5. Enzyme mechanisms.
6. Kinetics of enzymatic reactions.
6.1. The mechanism of Michaelis and Menten. The steady state hypothesis.
6.2. Analysis of the Michaelis-Menten equation and methods for the determination of its kinetic parameters.
6.3. Reversible reactions.
6.4. Analysis of reaction progress curve.
7. Practical aspects when carrying out kinetic studies.
8. Methods for deduction of steady state rate equations.
9. Enzyme inhibition and activation.
10. Multisubstrate reactions.
11. Practical applications of enzymes.

Practical and theoretical-practical classes:
Performing, and elaboration of the report, of 2 practical works.
Solving of exercises.
Main Bibliography A. Cornish-Bowden (2012) – Fundamentals of Enzyme Kinetics. 4th ed. Portland Press.
T. Palmer (1995) – Understanding Enzymes. 4th ed. Prentice Hall /Ellis Horwood.
A. Fersht (1999) – Structure and Mechanism in Protein Science. A Guide to Enzyme Catalysis and Protein Folding. W.H. Freeman and Company.
D. Voet & J.G. Voet (2004) – Biochemistry. 3rd ed. Wiley.
Teaching Methodologies and Assessment Criteria Conventional expositive lectures.
In order to contact with and to apply experimental methodologies used in the study of enzymatic reactions, the
students will perform laboratory studies. The performing of laboratory work is preceded by the preparation of a
pre-report, by each student, which will be discussed with the teacher. Based on the results obtained in
laboratory work the students, divided into groups, will prepare a scientific report.
So that the students interiorize the concepts presented in the theoretical classes, theoretical-practical classes
are scheduled in which the students will explore and apply these concepts to new problems.
Evaluation: Practical classification (PC)=(mean of the practical works reports)x0.40+(practical
information)x0.15+(practical test)x0.45
Theoretical classification (TC): (1st test)x0.6+(2nd test)x0.4
Global classification=TCx0.65+PCx0.35
Minimum classifications (values): practical test (7.5), PC (10), TC (10).
Language Portuguese. Tutorial support is available in English.
Last updated on: 2023-10-04

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