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Medical Instrumentation

Code 13520
Year 1
Semester S2
ECTS Credits 6
Workload TP(60H)
Scientific area Biomedical Sciences
Entry requirements N/A
Mode of delivery Face-to-face
Work placements Not applicable
Learning outcomes Obtaining training in Instrumentation field, with emphasis on the principles of operation of instruments and techniques used in diagnosis and therapy. At the end of the course the student should be able to: explain the physics processes related to radiation physics and the main characteristics of the detectors used in the detection of X- and gamma-rays. Relate the type of information that a nuclear medicine technique or X-ray techniques can provide with the physical principles and the instrumentation used. Critically analyze advances in technology used in medical instrumentation, focusing on instrumentation for nuclear medicine and diagnostic X-rays. Collect and organize information, and discussion in group of a medical instrumentation topic. Orally communicate issues in the area of medical instrumentation for public consisting of specialists and non-specialists.
Syllabus 1. Radiation Detectors
1.1. Historical background of radiation detectors
1.2. Basic principles of radiation detectors

2. Gaseous detectors
2.1. Ionization chamber
2.2. Proportional counter
2.3. Geiger-Müller counter

3. Semiconductor detectors
3.1. Properties of semiconductor materials
3.2. Semiconductor diodes as radiation detectors
3.3. Silicon and germanium detectors
3.4. Compound semiconductor detectors

4. Scintillation detectors
4.1. Basic principles of scintillation counters
4.2. Scintillating materials
4.3. Organic scintillators
4.4. Inorganic scintillators
4.5. Photomultiplier Tubes
4.6. Photodiodes
4.7. Scintillation pulse shape

5. Gamma-ray spectroscopy with scintillators
5.1. General considerations
5.2. Gamma-ray interaction
5.3. Detector expected response function
5.4. Complications in the detector response function
5.5. Properties of scintillator-based spectrometers

6. Gamma camera
6.1. Basic principles of operation
6.2. Performance characteristics
Main Bibliography Radiation Detection and Measurement, G. F. Knoll, 4rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2010.

Physics in Nuclear Medicine, S. R. Cherry, J. A. Sorenson, M. E. Phelps, 3rd ed., Saunders, Philadelphia, 2003.
Teaching Methodologies and Assessment Criteria Oral exposition theoretical-practical lectures using audiovisual media, supplemented with experimental demonstrations and with the solving of application problems where student participation is strongly encouraged.
Implementation of laboratory experiments by students using a typical laboratory assembly of nuclear spectroscopy, a system of X-rays production and radiation counters. Additionally, the students are asked to analyze and discuss current scientific articles.

Final evaluation of the course will be comprised by a written test and a continuous component:
1. A written test: 40%;
2. Execution of the laboratory works and the respective reports: 40%;
3. Oral presentation and discussion of scientific articles: 20%.
Language Portuguese. Tutorial support is available in English.
Last updated on: 2023-03-22

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